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Processes and Strategy

Processes and Strategy

Strategic Processes

“It should be borne in mind that there is nothing more difficult to arrange, more doubtful of success, and more dangerous to carry through than initiating changes in a state’s constitution. The innovator makes enemies of all those who prospered under the old order, and only lukewarm support is forthcoming from those who would prosper under the new.”….

Nicolo Machiavelli 1469-1527

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Process and Strategy

Managing Risk and Returns

Managing the Business

Leading Strategy and Strategic Alignment

In a turbulent business market place the need for a balanced approach to risk management within the business has never been more important as seen from the recent economic meltdown.

Innovation and creativity including risk taking are important, but not reckless opportunism.

Clearly links and assessment is required between risk investment and return, opportunity capitalization, process management, strategy and business ethics.

The EFQM Excellence Model is a business improvement framework for organizational management systems, promoted by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), it is specifically designed to help future orientated organizations in their drive towards being competitive.

Regardless of the sector you operate in, the size of your business, structure or its maturity, to be successful organizations need to establish appropriate management systems, which are visionary and driven by a considered strategy enabled by appropriate leadership.

The EFQM Excellence Model is a practical methodology designed to help organizations measure where they are on the path to improvement.

The coherent linking of risks, returns, quality process and strategy alignment, has the effect of bringing together the main important parts of the business often overlooked by adopting silo thinking to each component part.

The Main Aim of Management is to maximise the output of the organization through administrative implementation. To achieve this, managers undertake a number of direct operational functions (doing things right).

Leadership on the other hand is one important component of directing the future direction of the business. To achieve this leaders approach things differently they (do the right things).

(total benefit – total costs) = X 100 = ROI

Strategy is Not a Static Process, its ongoing continuum of business alignment and re-alignment within a shifting and emerging market place.

Business operates in an environment of constant change and evolutionary processes, as with any process change means constant disruption (with the risk of taking your eye off the ball or derailment).

Whilst these changes are happening consistently, the business still needs to maintain its direction and continuity, driven rather than pulled.

As with emergency contingency planning continuity of the business is critical; constant change can have a debilitating effect if it is not strategically managed in a way that makes it a natural process rather than a set of consistent uncomfortable experiences.

As with humans a business is a living organism and will evolve grow and prosper provided that the organisations climate is flexible enough and change enabling rather than neutralizing.

What you measure in strategy is down to the strategic variables you decide are essential, what is important is how it all fits together and harmonized.

A critical characteristic of modern organisations is the speed at which they are able to respond to social, market and technological changes. The recession has made it even more important that leaders create organisations in which rapid and effective ethical change is possible.

“It is a bad plan that admits of no modification”.

Publilius Syrus (~100 BC), Maxims

 

Leadership the productive and moral application of influence which inspires followers….


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Strategy, Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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The Four Window Organisation

The Four Window Organisation

The Business JoHari Four Windows

The JoHari window is a cognitive psychological tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham (two humanistic psychologists) to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as a heuristic exercise (this method is particularly used to rapidly come to a solution that is hoped to be close to the best possible answer, or ‘optimal solution’). Charles Handy calls this concept the JoHari House with four rooms. Room 1 is the part of ourselves that we and others see. Room 2 is the aspect that others see but we are not….

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Four Windows of the Organisation

A JoHari window is a cognitive psychological tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as a heuristic exercise (this method is particularly used to rapidly come to a solution that is hoped to be close to the best possible answer, or ‘optimal solution’).

 

Charles Handy calls this concept the JoHari House with four rooms. Room 1 is the part of ourselves that we and others see. Room 2 is the aspect that others see but we are not aware of. Room 3 is the most mysterious room in that the unconscious or subconscious bit of us is seen by neither ourselves nor others. Room 4 is our private space, which we know but keep from others.

 

Often businesses are viewed from a single linear dimension rather than looking at it as a multi-domain. If you are familiar with the work of the Cognitive Psychologists Luft and Ingham (the JOHARI Window) then you will recognise the model below. All that we have done is to take a simple concept of feedback and information sharing which impacts on the size of any window or in the case of Handy the room and apply it in the context of a business.

 

  • Bringing into our consciousness the subconscious is a different way of looking at the organization which helps us set about strategically adjusting the size of any particular windows.
  • A simple concept but very effective and ideal for companies experiencing economic pressures or needing to engage with their workforce or stakeholders.

 

Internally Known(Inside the Business)
Not Known( or Ignored Inside the Business)
Externally Known (known by our Clients and

Competitors)
4window Externally Known (Known by Staff, Clients and

Competitors)
Not Known Externally (Our Hidden Value) But Known to Us Area of Significant Impact
Externally Not Known
Internally and Externally Not Known

 

 

 

What is Already Known to the Business
This is the open window or as Luft, Ingham and Handy would describe it the Open Arena, or what you know about the business and the rest of the world knows about you. Its the public view of the organization, that which we all internally know about the organization, and everyone externally thinks about it. For the Marketing Brand and Media Department this represents the public face of the business, that which we want to portray. Unfortunately there are also things here that we might not want people to know or see (see what blinds the business).

 

What Blinds the Business
The need to change is not apparent unless you look for it. If the market, environment and supply of materials become difficult, and the organization has not recognised this, then it may suffer a form of blindness. Many organizations some well respected suffer “Business Blindness” this can be at a basic level of “what we have always done works so why change it” or at a more deep-rooted and profound level of “Board Room Blindness” (living in the corporate bubble).

 

Politically governments and parties start to suffer from this one towards the end of their second term in power “the arrogance syndrome of we know best” losing sight of their core values or a disconnectedness with the people. All of these are concerns in any organization or body of people and are worthy of some closer examination.

 

What is Hidden to the Business
The Unconscious Business hidden to the rest of the world but known by you. This might be the part of the business or organization you really need to understand or tell the world about (that which makes you unique).

 

A trusted party is presumed to seek to fulfil policies, ethical codes, law and their previous promises.

 

Trust does not need to involve belief in the good character, vices, or morals of the other party. Persons engaged in a criminal activity usually trust each other to some extent. Also, trust does not need to include an action that you and the other party are mutually engaged in. Trust is a statement about what is otherwise unknown — for example, because it is far away, cannot be verified, or is in the future.

 

In the social sciences, the subtleties of trust are a subject of ongoing research. In sociology and psychology the degree to which one party trusts another is a measure of belief in the honesty, benevolence and competence of the other party.

 

What Potential the Business Has
This is a massive area for potential provided that the organization can take a realistic view of “the collective self” and is not hampered by tradition, outdated practices, politics, arrogance, competitive paranoia and a need to tightly control everything.

 

Measuring Business Excellence at all levels will enable you to apply best practice, implement innovative thinking and learn how to use different practices. Learn how to use innovative frameworks, approaches and practices for understanding, assessing and managing the strategic value drivers of business excellence.

 

However a process is one thing, the catalysts another (catalysts = a bonder or agitator) the people that make things happen. We sometimes need to bond on other occasions we need to agitate in order to enable bonding.

 

  • Measuring Inside and Outside Potential
  • Measuring Asset Potential
  • Measuring Market and Growth Potential
  • Measuring Investment Potential

 

 

Impact Beyond the Bottom Line
The JoHari Window
(Luft Ingham)
  • Measuring Management Potential
  • Measuring Leadership Potential
  • Measuring Trust Potential
  • Measuring Creativity Potential
  • Measuring Innovation Potential
Four Windows on Business

 

 

 

 


Page by: Marshall Potts Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Transformational Change, Corporate Values, Leadership Climate and Development.

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Transformational Leadership and Change

Transformational Leadership and Change

Transformational Leadership and Change

Much has been written about the subject of leadership. Leadership is critical to the achievement of high performance, no matter what your business or area of responsibility. It is also essential in helping others aspire to and attain high levels of performance for themselves and the organization. Leadership has not stood still in the last decade and is continually being crafted to ensure that modern theories and practice are meeting the new demands of the marketplace (currently there are 80 models to choose from but of these can be collated under 5 or 6 headings or approaches)….

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Transactional or Transformational Leadership or Both

Change has never been popular and much has been written about the subject of leadership for around 100 years. Leadership is a critical factor in the achievement of high performance, no matter what your business or area of responsibility. It is also essential in helping others aspire to and attain high levels of performance for themselves and the organizations they represent. Leadership has not stood still in the last decade and is continually being crafted to ensure that modern theories and practice are meeting the new demands of the marketplace (currently there are around 80 models to choose from, but of these they can be collated under 5 or 6 approaches).

Modern leadership has its roots back in the works of such people as James McGregor Burns. In his book Leadership he introduces the notion of transactional and transformational leadership which have remained one of the most popular leadership models even today.

Transactional leadership is built on the notion of reciprocity, the idea that the relationship between leader and their followers develops from the exchange of some reward, such as performance ratings, pay, recognition, and praise. It involves leaders clarifying goals and objectives, communicating to organize tasks and activities with the co-operation of their employees to ensure that wider organizational goals are met. Such a relationship depends on hierarchy and the ability to work through this mode of exchange. It requires leadership skills such as the ability to obtain results, to control through structures and processes, to solve problems, to plan and organize, and work within the structures and boundaries of the organization.

Transformational leadership, on the other hand, is concerned with engaging the hearts and minds of others. It works to help all parties achieve greater motivation, satisfaction and a greater sense of achievement. It requires trust, concern and facilitation rather than direct control. The skills required are concerned with establishing a long-term vision, empowering people to control themselves, coaching, and developing others and challenging the culture to change. In transformational leadership, the power of the leader comes from creating understanding and trust. In contrast, in transactional leadership power is based much more on the notion of hierarchy and position.

While transformational leadership is popular, creating a high performance culture in your organization requires elements of transactional leadership to ensure a clear focus on the achievement and measurement of results, and transformational in engaging with people. The secret to good leadership then lies in your ability to combine the two, so that targets, results and procedures are delivered, developed and shared and that people are fully engaged in the success of the job, organization or venture.

Combined Transformational Transactional Leadership Behaviours

How does Transactional Leadership Differ from Transformational?

Transactional Leadership
Behaviour
Transformational Leadership
Behaviour
  • Clarify goals and objectives to obtain immediate results
  • Create structures and processes for control
  • Solve problems
  • Maintain and improve the current situation
  • Plan, organize and control
  • Guard and defend the culture
  • Power comes from position and authority in the organization
  • Establish long-term vision
  • Create a climate of trust
  • Empower people to control themselves; manage problem-solving
  • Change the current situation
  • Coach and develop people
  • Challenge and change the culture
  • Power comes from influencing a network of relationships

While most texts on leadership focus on a conceptual model of leadership not many actually describe what behaviours you might observe in a manager displaying one type or another. William James describes them as learning about rather than learning how to lead. There are a number of writers who have written on this subject.

Research has shown that the essential behavioural difference between Transactional and Transformational leaders is in their interactions with their staff and the former uses a higher proportion of closed and leading questions in their interactions with their staff and the later uses more open and reflective questions. In order to increase the amount of transformational leaders in your organization start by training them to use open, probing and reflective questions.


James MacGregor Burns (1978) first introduced the concepts of transformational leadership in his descriptive research on political leaders, but this term is now used in organizational psychology as well. According to Burns, transformational leadership is a process in which “leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation”. Burns related to the difficulty in differentiation between management and leadership and claimed that the differences are in characteristics and behaviours. He established two concepts: “transformational leadership” and “transactional leadership”. According to Burns, the transformational approach creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values, and changes expectations and aspirations of employees. Unlike in the transactional approach, it is not based on a “give and take” relationship, but on the leader’s personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. Transformational leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exemplar of working towards the benefit of the team, organization and/or community.

James Macgregor Burns

Leadership scholar and Pulitzer-prize winning author James MacGregor Burns talks to Jepson Professor Al Goethals about his thoughts on, and how he first became interested in, studying Leadership.

His key innovation in leadership theory was shifting away from studying the traits of great men and transactional management to focus on the interaction of leaders and led as collaborators working toward mutual benefit. He is best known for contributions to the Transformational, Aspirational and Visionary schools of leadership theory.

James Macgregor Burns states, that we need to step back from our over-emphasis on power and see it and leadership not as things but as relationships.

“We need to see power in a context of human motives and physical constraints.”

Another major theme is that leadership is a relationship of power for a specific purpose that is consistent, or eventually consistent, with the motives, needs, and values of both the leader and the led.

Another researcher, Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership; Bass also used the term “transformational” instead of “transforming.” Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance.

His full range of leadership introduces four elements of transformational leadership:

    1. Individualized Consideration – the degree to which the leader attends to each follower’s needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower’s concerns and needs. The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open and places challenges before the followers. This also encompasses the need for respect and celebrates the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team. The followers have a will and aspirations for self development and have intrinsic motivation for their tasks.

 

    1. Intellectual Stimulation – the degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits followers’ ideas. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. They nurture and develop people who think independently. For such a leader, learning is a value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn. The followers ask questions, think deeply about things and figure out better ways to execute their tasks.

 

    1. Inspirational Motivation – the degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. The visionary aspects of leadership are supported by communication skills that make the vision understandable, precise, powerful and engaging. The followers are willing to invest more effort in their tasks, they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their abilities.

 

  1. Idealized Influence – Provides a role model for high ethical behaviour, instills pride, gains respect and trust….

 

Leadership the productive and moral application of influence which inspires followers….


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

Emotionally Intelligent Leadership

‘Commitment is what transforms a promise into reality, the actions that speak louder than the words, the daily triumph of integrity over scepticism’

Sherson / Lehman

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EQL Emotional Intelligent Leadership

Research has shown that the importance of emotional intelligence increases with level of seniority in an organization, and that it’s emotional competence rather than technical or intellectual ability that makes the crucial difference between mediocre leaders and the best. Whilst effective leadership and management at all levels contribute to organisational performance, leadership and team working capability at a strategic level has the most significant impact on both culture and performance.


‘Commitment is what transforms a promise into reality, the actions that speak louder than the words, the daily triumph of integrity over scepticism’

Sherson / Lehman


Few would argue with the expectation that political and religious leaders should demonstrate applied integrity in both their professional and personal lives. Likewise, business leaders are expected to demonstrate ethical standards of business behaviour that engender confidence in their ability to deliver commercial success. The effect of trust (or lack of trust) on business confidence and its impact on company image and brand, share prices and consumer confidence can have wide implications on both national and international economics. The fall out for Enron, Marconi and others aiming to put a ‘spin’ on corporate performance are well documented examples of how shareholders, staff and customers were kept in the dark about the reality of the situation.

Business leadership and applied integrity should therefore go hand in hand. On a practical basis, this should include clearly stated principles and values that underpin corporate behaviour expectations at every level. Senior management have a particular responsibility to demonstrate these principles in practice, both on an individual basis and collectively as an executive team.

Principles into practice can however present more of a challenge. The concept of emotional intelligence, also referred to as ’emotional quotient’ or EQ, can help by clarifying principles and providing an effective behavioural framework. So, what is EQ and how does its application fit with the executive leadership role in particular?

Definitions of EQ suggest that it includes not only the ability to understand and influence emotions, but also that intuition and personal integrity are key elements. Daniel Goleman, accredited with popularizing the EQ concept during the 1990s, describes emotionally adept people as those who “know and manage their own feelings well, and who deal effectively with other people’s feelings”. Our definition of EQ as follows, integrates reflection of understanding distilled from a variety of published sources with views shared as part of in-depth and extensive debates during leadership and team development programmes.

EQ definition:

  • ‘Acknowledging and understanding the influence of emotions on ourselves and others, and responding using integrity and intuition to guide behaviour’

 

EQ- Competencies

 

Research by Hay / McBer of  Boston USA after re-analysing the data from the competence studies of forty companies to assess the relative weight of a given competence in setting Star Performers apart from Average Performers.

The results: Greater strengths in purely cognitive capacities (IQ) were 27 percent more frequent in the stars than in average performers, while greater strengths in emotional competencies were 53 percent more frequent. In other words, emotional competencies (EQ) were twice as important in contributing  to excellence as were pure intellect (IQ). This fits well with much more research in this field and as a rule of thumb for the general value of emotional competence in Star Performers.

Daniel Goldman in his first book on EQ “Working with Emotional Intelligence” using the science argues well why the above may be so. he examines in Competencies of Stars by a domain classification analysis.

  1. The Domain of Excellence: The Limits of IQ
  2. The Second Domain: Expertise
  3. The Third Domain: Emotional Intelligence
  4. The Comparison the Great Divide

 

Leadership the productive and moral application of influence which inspires followers….


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Strategy, Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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Principle Based Leadership

Principle Based Leadership

The Renaissance Approach

The Renaissance Approach puts people at the heart of the changes necessary to deliver extraordinary Organisational Performance. However this is also impacted by issues related to ineffective Systems Thinking. Our 4 Stage consulting approach to Continuous Improvement is based on:….

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Building World Class Organisational Performance Through People

The world currently has a huge interest in the topic of leadership. Never have more books been written (and read), research projects commissioned, tenders raised and business schools established, than now.

The approach we use puts people at the heart of the changes necessary to deliver extraordinary Organisational Performance. However this is also impacted upon by issues related to ineffective Systems Thinking. Our 4 Stage consulting approach to Continuous Improvement is based on:

• Diagnosis: understanding the current reality

• Awareness: raising emotional commitment to the changes necessary

• Implementation: workshop learning using People, Teams and Organisational Leaders Programmes; Systems Alignment

• Acceleration: engagement of staff in raising organisational performance

Our Approach

Bringing Humanity Back to Work!

A unique opportunity to build a high performing organisation by working with instead of in spite of your employees

Benefits of the Approach

Imagine working for an organisation where:

• Work is somewhere that you explore and fulfill your potential

• You can’t wait to get to every day

• Some of your best friends are made

• You are proud of what you and your organisation achieve

• Excellence is encouraged and rewarded

• Second best is no longer good enough

• You are expected to contribute not just to your organisation’s success but also that of your community

• You and your organisation gain a growing reputation for the impact you have on a local, regional, national and global basis

Organisations that adopt our approach have delivered all this at the same time as reducing costs and maximising income!

Leadership the Future is Now!

At a time in society when we are experiencing such a significant shift in perspectives in how business should operate in the future, never has there been a better time to review the impact of leadership within your organisation. Organisations must be transformed in today’s climate in a way that engages with the people who need to be transformed and with the other stakeholders who will be on the receiving end of those transformations.

Our Approach is a new and innovative way of leading engagement of your people in their future prosperity and that of the organisation. Much research work has been undertaken in to how to develop the workforce but little effort has been spent in understanding the leadership neutralizers which inhibit or stop the achievement of the organisations strategic goals.

Leadership the productive and moral application of influence which inspires followers….


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Strategy, Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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Behavioural Risk Assessment

Behavioural Risk Assessment

Behavioural Risk Profiling

The D.O.B.A.M.S Behavioural Assessment System has a powerful automated analysis engine that consistently understands the impact of each behaviour to present a risk profile to the future delivery of objectives, drivers of performance and outcomes. It makes what is currently invisible, visible, so that it can be managed, providing lead indicators of real risk allowing events to be managed before the potential risk becomes a reality….

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Behavioural Assessment

Behavioural Assessment is a unique and proven online assessment methodology that measures the future risk to the delivery of your business objectives, drivers of performance and the balance of intended and unintended outcomes. Based on understanding what people actually do, not what they say they do or write down it provides a unique insight into what may happen rather than what already has. We can’t manage the past or correct it, we can’t ‘resurrect someone who has died’ or reverse a decision.

Our IT online platform facilitates the collection of information from all stakeholders as to how others behave, the complex reality in which we all work.

Its powerful automated analysis engine consistently understands the impact of each behaviour to present a risk profile to the future delivery of objectives, drivers of performance and outcomes. It makes what is currently invisible, visible, so that it can be managed, providing lead indicators of real risk allowing events to be managed before the potential risk becomes a reality.

The world is full of ‘if only we knew?’ comments. From BP, to the financial meltdown, to deaths in hospitals – these events challenge us all to make sure we assess and measure that which tells us our organisation isn’t going to be next. So stop auditing and ticking boxes about the past and what people say happens and start understanding the future and the impact of what people actually do.

We have the expertise know-how and technology to leaver real improvements in behavioural performance, quality and economic efficiency.

Leadership the productive and moral application of influence which inspires followers….


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Strategy, Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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Development Centres

Development Centres

Defining Development Centre’s

A Development Centre is a process whereby a group of participants undertakes a series of job-related exercises under observation so that skills competencies and character traits can be assessed, a development and implementation plan drawn up (in the past the word Assessment Centre was used implying with feedback but no development plan)….

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What is an Assessment or Development Centre?

Development Cetres come in many forms, we use a variety of approaches and methodologies depending on the clients particular needs including technological solutions. We are not tied to one particular system or methodology which allows for considerable bespoke design and freedom.

A Development Centre is a process whereby a group of participants undertakes a series of job-related exercises under observation so that skills competencies and character traits can be assessed, a development and implementation plan drawn up (in the past the word Assessment Centre was used implying with feedback but no development plan). Nowadays Development Plans are supplied regardless of the intention so in most cases they are Development Centres rather than just providing Assessment and Feedback. Specially trained assessors evaluate each participant against predetermined criteria.

Various methods of assessment may be used, including interviews, psychometric tests, group discussions, group problem solving exercises, individual job-simulated tasks and role-play. An Assessment or specific Development Centre is used in selection for recruitment and promotion and in training development and succession planning, it aims to provide an organization with an assessment process that is consistent, free of prejudice and fair. The outcomes can be defined but usually action plans for development purposes and reports on participants are produced for planning purposes or a selection decision together with other data that is available.

The use of a range of activities ensures that each individual has a number of opportunities to demonstrate their strengths. And to avoid potential bias, each activity is usually observed by a different assessor or several assessors over time. The final piece in the jigsaw is the construction of a matrix specifying which competencies are to be assessed in each activity and a comparison of the participant is made against the criteria.

  • Ideally, each competency would be assessed at least three times, and no more than four competencies would be assessed in any one activity.

Because all activities are carefully structured around a competency model, with specific behaviours being tracked within each competency, a single rating scale is used to measure performance in the various settings. Assessors are specially trained in behavioural observation and recording, ensuring that individual ratings can be explained via behaviours either within the competency model or closely related to it. As a result, when the final discussion takes place a well-rounded picture of each individual emerges, grounded in specific demonstrated behaviours.

What is Competence?

Competence (skills, behaviour, knowledge, thinking, experience and values) are a highly descriptive language that communicates strategy and performance improvement required of people in an organization. They convert potentially disaffected members of the workforce into measurable and therefore manageable human capital. Once people become human capital the bias, familiarity and subjectivity towards them can be replaced by a fairer, more dispassionate, objective and efficient method of channelling their power. Using competencies to define human capital through role profiles and development planning enables all gaps between current and required state to be identified and addressed. Individual gaps are aggregated as an organizational capital risk. This gap becomes the liability on the corporate human capital balance sheet. It also defines what must be addressed to achieve business performance improvement.

What are Competencies?

We define competencies as those measurable skills, thinking, abilities and personality traits that identify successful employees against defined roles within an organization.

Core Competencies are those competencies that any successful employee will need to rise through the organization; the level of accomplishment may vary but the essential competency will remain the same. Competencies can, of course, change over time and should not be regarded as immutable (they are usually defined and set for the whole organization)

  • They uniquely define an organization’s values and requirements as expressed through its people.
  • They form the cornerstone for the implementation of HR systems such as selection, appraisal, management development, coaching and succession planning.

Specifically behavioural job competency is an underlying characteristic of a persons behaviour which results in effective and/or superior performance.

Assessment Methodologies

There are a number of ways to assess the competencies both psychometrically, through observational assessment and by exercise (a combination of all methods are usually used) or by using predefined standards (National occupational standards NOS).

Firstly though you need to decide on the number of variables to be measured (competencies, characteristics, traits or standards to measure against) and the assessment methods, technology, exercises and the behavioural observation techniques to be used or psychometric tests best suited to measure them (this is probably where you need the special skills of an expert in this field).

The Technology

There are numerous technological solutions out in the market for you to choose from, but which one do you select that will provide a unique solution to what you need for your particular organization and culture?


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Strategy, Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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Competence

Competence

Competence Systems Design and Deployment

The systems we use enable you to implement cost-effective competency based management across the full spectrum of HCM, from recruitment, selection and assessment processes, through learning and career development, performance management and succession planning systems. The technology we use is being used by organizations of all sizes and sectors around the world, to facilitate more effective application of Competency Based Human Capital Management….

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Competence Based Talent Management (CBTM) System Deployment

Jasper International Academy are recognized as a leader in the field of competency-based Human Capital Management. As part of our ongoing company development we are now able to deploy some of the latest in competency and talent management solutions and systems.

The systems we use enable you to implement cost-effective competency based management across the full spectrum of HCM, from recruitment, selection and assessment processes, through learning, talent spotting and career development and includes performance management modules and succession planning. The technology we use is being used by organizations of all sizes and sectors around the world, to facilitate more effective application of Competency Based talent Human Capital Management.

Innovative technology capable of managing divers employee numbers from 20 to 150,000. Built around a common competency architecture, this innovative suite of Intranet / Internet enabled tools facilitates the strategic management of the whole employee life cycle, from pre-employment to retirement.

The system is available as a hosted web service, to small to medium sized businesses for a small monthly fee.

Available in an Enterprise Version, the tools can be easily tailored to reflect your unique organizational branding, structure and hierarchy of competencies, with report generation tailored to meet your specific reporting requirements.

Competence Based Talent Management CBTM System Deployment

From Pre-Hireing to Retirement: Strategic Management of the whole Employee Life Cycle

The five modules are designed to work with your existing HC infrastructure, and enable you to leverage that investment through strategic human capital management.

CBTM System ASP (from 10 to 1000 employees)

As a hosted web service the CBTM System is available to small to medium size businesses for a small monthly fee. The CBTM System has been tested on both Mozilla, Firefox1.x and Internet Explorer 8 and above.

The CBTM System requires that Adobe Acrobat Reader version 6.0 or better be installed in order to view reports..

All other CBTM System functionality is unaffected if Acrobat Reader is not available. No other special software is required.

CBTM System Enterprise (from 1000 to 150,000 employees)

The tools can be easily tailored to reflect your unique organisational branding, structure and hierarchy of competencies, with reports generation tailored to meet your specific reporting requirements.

Our goal is to help employers create measurable business results through the better management of their human capital.

Jasper International experienced team of human resource consultant’s help clients understand, develop, implement, and quantify the effectiveness of their human resource programs and policies. We offer a full spectrum of consulting, training and research services.


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Strategy, Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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Competencies and Standards

Competencies and Standards

Differentiating Competencies and Standards

Then it could be argued that the credibility of the standards used might be suspect. Having said this, many Academics or Scientists might argue that there is not one all encompassing agreement or view on how health care systems should be managed and benchmarked.

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| Welcome | About JGC | Clients | Offices | Email Us | Site Map | News Desk |


Group Sites

| Jasper International Academy | Jasper E-Learning Academy | Centre for Cyber and Economic Crime | Centre for Management Leadership and Business Skills | Centre for Investment Securities and Economic Development Skills | Partner Approved Centres | Research | Consultancy Services |


International Competencies and Standards

We are very careful in how we describe International Standards Competence and Competencies so many countries state, that they apply these only for us to find that the standards deployed are in fact one countries or one occupational sectors view of a standards set. And that competencies applied are standards which have been locally developed or international versions that have been applied.

To explain this (lets pick on health care). If the standards used were defined by a local health care system rather than the World Health Organization.

WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.

Then it could be argued that the credibility of the standards used might be suspect. Having said this, many Academics or Scientists might argue that there is not one all encompassing agreement or view on how health care systems should be managed and bench-marked.

National Occupational Standards:

According to the Sector Skills Development Agency (SSDA, from 1 April 2008 replaced by the UK Commission on Employment and Skills), National Occupational Standards set out measurable performance outcomes to which an individual is expected to work in a given occupation. Developed by employers across the UK, NOS set out the skills, knowledge and understanding required to perform competently in the workplace.

This paragraph above is very important when trying to differentiate the language of competence and has significantly led to considerable confusion. Each body or organization will promote what it does in its own particular way and words “Competence and Competencies” in this context have led to so many views that commerce and industry apply them inappropriately and mix up approaches or just don’t use them at all.

National Vocational Qualifications – Using Occupational Standards:

National Vocational Qualifications (they use National Occupational Standards) is another interesting standards based model. Fortunately we were involved in 1985 during the evolution of these qualifications and have tracked them over the years from when they were piloted in two occupational groups, to the latest attempt to correlate them with academic equivalent status. Much debate is taking place on whether they were actually ever designed for this purpose. So we are very familiar with the arguments merits and demerits associated with the framework.

National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ’s) are work based awards in England, Wales and Northern Ireland that are achieved through assessment and training. In Scotland they are known as Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ).

To achieve an NVQ, candidates must prove that they can display the knowledge and skills (competence) to carry out their job to the required standard. NVQ’s are based on ‘National Occupational Standards’ that describe the ‘competencies’ expected in any given job role. Typically, candidates will work towards an NVQ that reflects their role in a paid or voluntary position. For example someone working in an admin office role may take an NVQ in Business and Administration.

There are five levels of NVQ ranging from Level 1, which focuses on basic work activities, to Level 5 for senior management.

Level 1: Competence that involves the application of knowledge in the performance of a range of varied work activities, most of which are routine and predictable.

Level 2: Competence that involves the application of knowledge in a significant range of varied work activities, performed in a variety of contexts. Collaboration with others, perhaps through membership of a work group or team, is often a requirement.

Level 3: Competence that involves the application of knowledge in a broad range of varied work activities performed in a wide variety of contexts, most of which are complex and non-routine. There is considerable responsibility and autonomy and control or guidance of others is often required.

Level 4: Competence that involves the application of knowledge in a broad range of complex, technical or professional work activities performed in a variety of contexts and with a substantial degree of personal responsibility and autonomy. Responsibility for the work of others and the allocation of resources is often present.

Level 5: Competence that involves the application of a range of fundamental principles across a wide and often unpredictable variety of contexts. Very substantial personal autonomy and often significant responsibility for the work of others and for the allocation of substantial resources features strongly, as do personal accountabilities for analysis, diagnosis, design, planning, execution and evaluation

It should be noted that the above gives only guidelines for these qualifications as they measure different things. NVQ’s are a measure of competence to do a job (meeting standards) whilst Academic qualifications generally measure the individual’s knowledge of a subject.

However since September 2006 the Academic qualifications rating has been changed from 5 to 8 levels. In addition with the onset of the Qualifications Curriculum Authority (QCA) there is a new framework which brings together the first 5 and extends them to 8 within the academic framework (and in some cases argued for 10). The idea is to link vocational and academic Knowledge and Skills together; what has emerged is a framework called Unitization consisting of a qualification model at 8 levels with an collated for qualifications into 3 groups of the Award, Certificate and Diploma at each of the 8 levels. The idea is one of harmonizing vocational and academic delivery and providing a progression route from the lowest to the highest based on the capability of the individual with reduced and attempting to reduce duplication. Indications are that the NVQ framework will be replaced by a new QCA framework based on unitized learning.

Technical and Academic Competence

It gets even more confusing there has been for a long time yet another way of describing competence as in a technical transfer of knowledge to application.

  1. Level 1 AWARENESS
  2. Level 2 KNOWLEDGE
  3. Level 3 SKILL
  4. Level 4 MASTERY

Often when we do a task well, we no longer remember how we learned to do it. To prepare to teach well we may need to move though different learning levels ourselves. When we excel at a task, we are most likely at the level of Unconscious Competence to teach others, we must move back to Conscious Competence.

Levels of Mastery

  1. Level 1 Unconscious Incompetence: I don’t know how and I don’t know I don’t know
  2. Level 2 Conscious Incompetence: I know I don’t know how to do a task
  3. Level 3 Conscious Competence: I do a task well and I need to think though the steps
  4. Level 4 Unconscious Competence: I do a task well by habit

We are not arguing for or against any one system, only that organizations need to be very clear about why they are using standards or a particular competence model. Are they designed to have a profound impact on organizational performance or just something to benchmark against?

Finally there are at least 15 definitions of what competence is and competencies are and approaches to measuring it / them and standards are included in the list.

Definition of Competence?

Competence (skills, behavioural and trait characteristics, knowledge, thinking, experience and values) are a highly descriptive language that communicates strategy and performance improvement required of people in an organization. They convert potentially disaffected members of the workforce into measurable and therefore manageable human capital. Once people become human capital the bias, familiarity and subjectivity towards them can be replaced by a fairer, more dispassionate, objective and efficient method of channeling their power. Using competencies to define human capital through role profiles and development planning enables all gaps between current and required state to be identified and addressed. Individual gaps are aggregated as an organizational capital risk. This gap becomes the liability on the corporate human capital balance sheet. It also defines what must be addressed to achieve business performance improvement.

What are Competencies?

Competencies as those measurable skills, thinking, abilities and personality traits that identify successful employees against defined roles within an organization.

Core Competencies can be defined as those competencies that any successful employee will need to rise through the organisation; the level of accomplishment may vary but the essential competency will remain the same. Competencies can, of course, change over time and should not be regarded as immutable (they are usually defined and set for the whole organization).

  • They uniquely define an organization’s values and requirements as expressed through its people.
  • They form the cornerstone for the implementation of HR Systems such as selection, talent and knowledge management, appraisal, training, management development, coaching and succession planning.

Specifically behavioural job competency is an underlying characteristic of a person’s behaviour which results in effective and/or superior performance.

Example of some competencies:

  • team working skills;
  • communication skills;
  • leadership skills;
  • time-management skills;
  • listening skills;
  • motivation and enthusiasm;
  • data analysis skills;
  • decision-making skills;
  • influencing skills;
  • creativity;
  • integrity;
  • initiative.

Cognitive (or thinking) competencies:  also result in contributing towards superior performance this is how people arrive at making the right decisions they are defined as core and used in many organizations to assess staff in certain roles; they consist of two main critical cognitive skills that are measured and developed capabilities which are derived from the basis of higher education, experience and mind development technologies.

  • Analytical Thinking: this is the ability to gather, understand and interpret information; simplify complex problems and see causal links. It occurs within the Immediate Task and is a Left Brained activity.
  • Conceptual Thinking: is the ability to understand a situation or problem by identifying patterns or connections, and addressing key underlying issues. Conceptual thinking includes the integration of issues and factors into a conceptual framework. It involves using past professional or technical training and experience, creativity, inductive reasoning and intuitive processes that lead to potential solutions or viable alternatives that may not be obviously related or easily identified. It is Holistic or Big Picture thinking and is a Right and a Whole Brained activity.
  • Capability within the Higher Education Setting: ” which seek to develop the above two by developing Excellence in Knowledge Acquisition and Skills of Analysis.  Excellence in doing, organizing, designing, communicating, creativity and imagination.  Excellence in Working with Others with Supervision”.

Combined with a few other considerations these result in what are known as higher order thinking skills, which are critical for the more senior thinkers and leaders in an organization.


Page by Marshall Potts – Specialist Development Consultant. Marshall has written a number of articles on Strategy, Transformational Change, Corporate Values and Leadership Development.

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